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Cognitive and Emotional Health Project: The Healthy Brain







Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised

Duke Longitudinal Studies of Normal Aging I (Siegler 1983)

o Full WAIS, short WMS (Logical memory - Immediate & Delayed Recall; Paired Associate Learning; Visual Reproductions)

Duke Longitudinal Studies of Normal Aging II (Siegler 1983)
o Short WAIS (Information, Vocabulary, Picture Arrangement, Digit Symbol Substitution)
Framingham Study (Farmer et al. 1987; Elias et al. 1997)
o 20-25 min test battery: WMS subtests (Logical memory - Immediate & Delayed recall; Visual Reproductions, Paired Associate Learning), WAIS subtests (Digits Forward, Digits Backward, Similarities) & Word Fluency (Benton) administered in 1976-78
o MMSE has been administered since 1982
o Dementia evaluations since early 1990s

Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (JR Cerhan, AR Folsom, JA Mortimer et al. 1998)
o Delayed Word Recall Test (Knopman & Ryberg 1989), Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Word Fluency.

Cerhan et al. (1998): In cross-sectional analysis of data from 14,000 middle-aged adults, cognitive performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women than men, & better in managers/professionals compared with other occupations. After controlling for these factors, race & community, the findings most consistent for both genders were that Delayed Word Recall was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, diabetes, & fibrinogen level; Digit Symbol Subtest was associated with marital status, negatively associated with depressive symptoms, smoking status, fibrinogen level, & carotid intima-media thickness, and positively associated with alcohol drinking and FEV-1; and the Word Fluency Test was positively associated with marital status, alcohol drinking, sports participation, & FEV-1.

Cardiovascular Health Study (Fried et al. 1991)
o MMSE; Digit Symbol Substitution Test

Nun Study (Snowdon et al. 1997)
o SPMSQ; CERAD battery; dementia evaluation

Riley et KP, Snowdon DA et al. (2000). Cognitive function and apolipoprotein E in very old adults: findings from the Nun Study.

Nurses' Health Study
o TICS; EBMT; Category fluency (animals); Digits backwards

Grodstein et al. (2000). Postmenopausal hormone therapy & cognitive function in healthy older women.

Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
o 3MS; Trail Making Test Part B; Digit Symbol Substitution Test

9651 elderly (65+) white community-dwelling women in Baltimore, Minneapolis, & Monongahela Valley near Pittsburgh PA; Portland Oregon. 6+ yr follow-up.

Gregg EW et al. (2000). Is diabetes associated with cognitive impairment and cognitive decline among older women?

Matthews K et al. (1999). Estrogen replacement therapy & cognitive decline in older community women.

Yaffe K et al. (1999) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in nondemented elderly women. Depressive symptoms, as measured by the shortened Geriatric Depression Scale, are predictive of cognitive decline.

Yaffe K et al. (1998). Serum estrogen levels, cognitive performance, and risk of cognitive decline in older community women.

Yaffe K et al. (1998). Neuropsychiatric function and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in elderly women: a prospective study

Yaffe K et al. (1997). Apolipoprotein E phenotype and cognitive decline in a prospective study of elderly community women.

Normative Aging Study (Jones KJ, Albert MS et al. 1991)
o Auditory & visual continuous performance tasks (Mirsky 1978); Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; Wechsler Memory Scale (memory for paragraphs, line drawings, paired associates); tests of delayed recall & recognition; Visual Reproductions subtest of WMS; clock drawing, clock copying; Gorham's Proverb Interpretation Test; Visual-Verbal Test; competing motor programs; Block Design subtest of WAIS, Digit Symbol Substitution Subtest of WAIS; Vocabulary subtest of WAIS.

Payton M et al. (1998) Relations of bone and blood lead to cognitive function: the VA Normative Aging Study.

Personnes Agees QUID (PAQUID)
o MMSE, Benton Visual Retention Test, Paired-associates test of WMS, Isaacs Set Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, single item measure of subjective memory; dementia evaluation

3777 persons aged 65+ living in Gironde & Dordogne, France.

Fabrigoule C et al. (1998). Cognitive process in preclinical phase of dementia.

Dartigues JF et al. (1997) Cognitive predictors of dementia in elderly community residents.

Jacqmin-Gadda H et al. (1997). A 5-yr longitudinal study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in normal aging.

Fabrigoule C et al. (1995) Social and leisure activities and risk of dementia: A prospective longitudinal study.

Gagnon M, Dartigues JF et al. (1994) Self-reported memory complaints and memory performance in elderly French community residents: Results of the PAQUID research program. Neuroepidemiology.

Dartigues JF et al. (1992). Principal lifetime occupation and cognitive impairment in a French elderly cohort.

Dartigues JF et al. (1992). Occupation during life and memory performance in nondemented French elderly community residents.

Australian Study (Christensen H, Mackinnon AJ, Jorm AF, Henderson AS et al. 1994)
o MMSE; National Adult Reading Test; Symbol Letter Modalities Test (SLMT; a modified version of Symbol Digit Modalities Test of Smith (1973) & similar to Digit Symbol Substitution of WAIS-R); Choice & simple reaction time task requiring subjects to respond to one of two lights; Vocabulary (3 items from WAIS-R); Similarities (3 items from WAIS-R); Information (4 items identifying historical figures); Cube drawing (copy cube from drawn 2-dimensional figure); Memory for a figure (1 item from Visual Reproduction subtest of WMS); Recall of words (recall 3 words learned to criterion); Address recall (recall name & address learned to criterion 1-2 min earlier); Face recognition (intentional face recognition, similar to Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test); Word recognition (incidental memory task in which subjects are asked to answer 12 questions, each of which contained key words, & which were later recognized from 24 items); Verbal Fluency (name as many animals as possible within 30 seconds). Test battery was factor analyzed to produce 3 factors "Crystallized Intelligence", "Fluid Intelligence", "Memory". Dementia assessed with Canberra Interview for the Elderly.

Jorm AF et al. (1998). Occupation type as a predictor of cognitive decline and dementia in old age.

Jorm AF et al. (1997). Do cognitive complaints either predict future cognitive decline or reflect past cognitive decline? A longitudinal study of an elderly community sample. Cognitive complaints did not predict future cognitive change on the MMSE, an episodic memory test, or test of mental speed. Cognitive complaints at Wave 2 were unrelated to past cognitive changes on these tests after controlling for effects of anxiety/depression.

Korten AE et al. (1997). A prospective study of cognitive function in the elderly.

Christensen H et al. (1997). Education and decline in cognitive performance: compensatory but not protective.

Christensen H et al. (1996). Activity levels and cognitive functioning in an elderly community sample.

Christensen H et al. (1995). ICD-10 mild cognitive disorder: epidemiological evidence on its validity.

Christensen H et al. (1994). Age differences and interindividual variation in cognition in community-dwelling elderly.

Christensen H et al. (1994). The relationship between health and cognitive functioning in a sample of elderly people in the community.

Washington Heights, Northern Manhattan (Stern Y et al.1992)
o 1-hour test battery developed for use in this study: Orientation (10 orientation items from MMSE); Verbal reasoning (Similarities subtest of WAIS-R); Nonverbal reasoning (Identities and Oddities subtest of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale); Letter fluency (Controlled Word Association Test); Category fluency (animals, foods, clothing); Repetition (repeat high-frequency phrases from Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Repetition of Phrases subtest); Auditory comprehension (first 6 items of Complex Ideational Material subtest of Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination); Word list learning and memory (Selective Reminding Test); Visuoperceptual skills (Figure matching - Benton Visual Retention Test); Nonverbal memory (multiple choice version of Benton Visual Retention Test); Visuoconstructional skills (Rosen Drawing Test); Attention (target-detection tasks).

o 2128 residents of Washington Heights in northern New York City were followed for 5 years, from 1991-1996. Dementia evaluations were also conducted. Patients who met criteria for probable or possible AD with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale score of 0.5 or higher were considered to have a clinical diagnosis of dementia.

Stricks L, Pittman J, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Stern Y. Normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery administered to English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling elders. J International Neuropsychological Society. 1998;4:311-8.

Romas SN, Mayeux R, Tang MX et al. (2000). No association between a presenilin 1 polymorphism and Alzheimer disease.

Devi G et al. (2000). Familial aggregation of Alzheimer disease among whites, African Americans, and Caribbean Hispanics in northern Manhattan.

Tang MX, Stern Y et al. (1998). The APOE-episilon4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer Disease among African Americans, White, and Hispanics.

Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.
o Digit symbol from WAIS, Koh's block design (modified from WAIS), Synonyms, Figure Logic, Figure ID (ETS), Analogies, Card Rotations (ETS), Thurstone's Picture Memory, Names and faces, MMSE.

Finkel D, Pedersen NL, Plomin R, McClearn GE. (1998). Longitudinal and cross-sectional twin data on cognitive abilities in adulthood: the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

Gatz M, Pedersen NL, Berg S, Johansson B, Johansson K, Mortimer JA, Posner SE, Viitanen M, Winblad B, Ahlbom A. (1997). Heritibility for Alzheimer's disease: the study of dementia in Swedish twins.

Bronx Aging Study (Katzman R, Aronson M, Fuld P et al. 1989)
o 488 initiallly nondemented community-dwelling persons aged 75-85 followed for 10 yr

o BIMC, WAIS subtests (Information, Vocabulary, Similarities, Digit Span, Block Design, Object Assembly, Digit Symbol), semantic category retrieval, Purdue Pegboard, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, Cued Selective Reminding Test, Raven Colored Matrices Set A, design copy task, tests of praxis, Face-Hand Test.

Masur DM et al. (1994). Neuropsychological prediction of dementia and the absence of dementia in healthy elderly persons.
Crystal HA et al. (1996). Associations of status and change measures of neurospsychological function with pathologic changes in elderly, originally nondemented subjects.