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Cognitive and Emotional Health Project: The Healthy Brain

Learning and Memory

By selecting | Studies | , you can view those epidemiologic studies which have used a given measure.
Verbal learning and memory

o Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R; Wechsler 1987). The complete test battery consists of 13 subtests that can be administered in 45 minutes. Percentile scores are available for 8 subtests and standard scores in 5 summary areas (orientation, attention, verbal memory, visual memory, delayed recall). | Studies |

Verbal memory subtests:
o Logical memory. 2 stories are presented orally; recall is tested immediately & after 30-minute delay.
o Paired associate learning. 10 word pairs presented for 3 trials; recall is tested immediately & after 30-minute delay.

o Selective Reminding Test (SRT) (Buschke & Fuld 1974). List of 10-12 words presented for 6-12 trials; recall tested after each trial & after delay; subjects reminded only of items forgotten on a given trial. Subscores measure retrieval from short-term memory, retrieval from long-term memory, long-term memory storage, consistency of retrieval, & reminding failures. Test may help identify specific memory problems. | Studies |

o Cued Selective Reminding Test (Grober & Buschke, 1987). Set of 16 labeled pictures presented 4 at a time; patient given category cue and asked to point to and name the item representing that category; after all items presented, 3 trials of free and cued recall, followed by recognition. | Studies |

o Fuld Object Memory Test (Fuld 1980). Set of 10 objects identified by touch, sight, & name prior to recall; 5 recall trials separated by 30 or 60 seconds of distraction; 5-minute delayed recall and recognition testing. Developed for people aged 70+ ; useful with nursing home residents & community-dwelling elderly. | Studies |

o Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) (Rey 1964). List of 15 words presented for 5 trials; recall tested after each trial & after presentation of a second (interference) list; recognition testing. Few norms for healthy elderly. | Studies |

o California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)(Delis et al., 1987). Adapted from AVLT. Advantages over AVLT: more detailed instructions for test administration & scoring as well as normative data for older subjects.

o Delayed Word Recall Test (DWRT) (Knopman & Ryberg, 1989) A test of verbal learning & recent memory that requires subject to recall 10 common nouns following a 5-minute interval during which another psychometric test is given. To standardize elaborative processing of words to be recalled, individuals are required to compose sentences incorporating the nouns as presented. Scores range from 0-10. 6-month test-retest reliability = 0.75 in normal elderly. | Studies |

o New York University Memory Test (Randt et al. 1980; Osbourne et al. 1982). Developed specifically for older adults. Brief scales assess general information, verbal list learning, digit span, paired associates, story recall, picture recognition, incidental learning.

o Shopping List Test, Misplaced Objects Test (Crook, Ferris et al. 1979, 1980) Clinical memory measures for older adults that closely mirror everyday memory tasks -- e.g. Shopping List Test (McCarthy et al. 1981), misplaced-objects test (Crook et al. 1979) & digit span task that involves repetition of telephone numbers (Crook et al. 1980). Computerized versions of these & related tasks have been developed (Poon 1986).

o Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (Wilson et al 1985, 1989). Focuses on everyday memory problems. Tasks include remembering a name, an appointment, & newspaper article; finding hidden object; recognizing faces; remembering a route. | Studies |

Nonverbal learning and memory

o Visual Reproduction subscale of Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised, (Wechsler 1987). 4 geometric designs studied for 5 seconds each; subject attempts to copy each design from memory immediately and after 30-second delay. Potential disadvantage: memory & visuospatial abilities may be confounded. Possible floor effects, as very old or poorly educated subjects may obtain very low scores. [For list of studies, see WMS, under verbal learning and memory, above.]

o Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT; Benton 1974). Series of 10 geometric designs presented for 10 seconds each; task is to copy each design from memory immediately after study. Potential disadvantage: floor effects. | Studies |

o Benton Visual Retention Test, Multiple Choice (VRT-MC) (Benton, Hamsher & Stone 1977). Multiple-choice recognition of 16 designs, immediately following study or after 15-second delay. | Studies |

o Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Rey 1941; Osterrieth 1944). Complex geometric design is first copied &, after variable delays, drawn from memory.

o Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) (Moss et al. 1986) Blank discs are placed on specific positions on a board in series and the subject is asked to identify which disc 'is the new one'. | Studies |