Selective Reminding Test (SRT)1. Rancho Bernardo Study
o 12 standard neuropsychological tests: BIMC (2 items), Buschke-Fuld Selective Reminding Test (3 measures of retrieval), category fluency test, Visual Reproduction Test (immediate & delayed recall), MMSE, Trail-Making Test Part B.
1509 community-dwelling men & women aged 55+ who participated in the original Rancho Bernardo, California Study of 1973-75 and attended clinic visits in 1984-87 and 1988-91.
Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D (1999). Gender differences in cognitive function with age: the Rancho Bernardo Study
Barrett-Connor E et al. (1999). Endogenous sex hormones & cognitive function in older men.
Barrett-Connor E, Goodman-Gruen D. (1999). Cognitive function and endogenous sex hormones in women.
Edelstein SL et al. (1998). Prospective association of smoking and alcohol use with cognitive function in an elderly cohort.
Scott RD et al. (1998). The association of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and cognitive function in an older cohort.
2. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
o Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT); Free and Cued Selective Reminding Tests; BIMC; "2 tests of mental status that include items assessing memory, visual construction, and attention"; semantic & phonetic word fluency tests; Trail-Making Test Parts A & B; Dementia Questionnaire.
Kawas C et al. (2000). Age-specific incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
Moffat SD, Zonderman AB et al. (2000). The relationship between longitudinal declines in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations and cognitive performance in older men.
Resnick SM et al. (1998). Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on PET cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological performance.
Resnick SM et al. (1997). Estrogen replacement therapy and longitudinal decline in visual memory. A possible protective effect?
Kawas C et al. (1994). A validation study of the Dementia Questionnaire.
3. Washington Heights, Northern Manhattan (Stern Y et al.1992)
o 1-hour test battery developed for use in this study: Orientation (10 orientation items from MMSE); Verbal reasoning (Similarities subtest of WAIS-R); Nonverbal reasoning (Identities and Oddities subtest of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale); Letter fluency (Controlled Word Association Test); Category fluency (animals, foods, clothing); Repetition (repeat high-frequency phrases from Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Repetition of Phrases subtest); Auditory comprehension (first 6 items of Complex Ideational Material subtest of Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination); Word list learning and memory (Selective Reminding Test); Visuoperceptual skills (Figure matching - Benton Visual Retention Test); Nonverbal memory (multiple choice version of Benton Visual Retention Test); Visuoconstructional skills (Rosen Drawing Test); Attention (target-detection tasks).
o 2128 residents of Washington Heights in northern New York City were followed for 5 years, from 1991-1996. Dementia evaluations were also conducted. Patients who met criteria for probable or possible AD with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale score of 0.5 or higher were considered to have a clinical diagnosis of dementia.
Stricks L, Pittman J, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Stern Y. Normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery administered to English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling elders. J International Neuropsychological Society. 1998;4:311-8.
Romas SN, Mayeux R, Tang MX et al. (2000). No association between a presenilin 1 polymorphism and Alzheimer disease.
Devi G et al. (2000). Familial aggregation of Alzheimer disease among whites, African Americans, and Caribbean Hispanics in northern Manhattan.
Tang MX, Stern Y et al. (1998). The APOE-episilon4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer Disease among African Americans, White, and Hispanics.
4. Mayo AD Patient Registry (Petersen RC, Kokmen E et al. 1990)
o WAIS, WMS, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT); Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test; Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT); Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test (BNT); Multi-Lingual Aphasia Exam Token Test; Category Fluency Test (CFT); Mattis Dementia Rating Scale; MMSE; Short Test of Mental Status; Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; Hachinski Ischemic Scale; Dementia Rating Scale; Global Deterioration Scale
Petersen RC et al. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome.
5. Kuipio, Finland Study of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the elderly (Kuusisto J et al. 1994).
o Cross-sectional population-based study of 980 Finnish elderly. Phase 1 screening battery included MMSE, Visual Reproduction Test, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Buschke Selective Reminding test (Koivisto K et al. 1992). Phase 2: Subjects scoring 1 standard deviation below the mean in phase 1 completed a detailed neuropsychological battery of 12 tests (Grober E et al. 1988). Diagnosis of dementia based on DSM-III-R criteria. Phase 3: Subjects with possible dementia underwent further studies to confirm and classify dementia subtype.
Kuuisto J et al. (1997). Association between features of the insulin resistance syndrome and Alzheimer's disease independently of apolipoprotein E4 phenotype: cross-sectional population-based study.