By selecting | Studies | , you can view those epidemiologic studies which have used a given measure.
Many instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), such as managing finances, taking medications, using telephone, shopping for necessities, meal preparation, basic housekeeping, & driving; these require cognitive skill.
o Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL) (Diehl M, Willis SL, Schaie KW 1995). Performance-based assessment of cognitive components of IADL functioning, designed for older community-dwelling adults. Focuses on 3 IADL domains: food preparation (7 tasks, e.g. baking cake, comprehending nutrition labels), medication use (9 tasks, e.g. loading a pill reminder, comprehending a medication label), & telephone use (e.g. finding a number in phone book), financial management (e.g. balancing checkbook, paying monthly bills). OTDL performance is significantly correlated with scores on measures of basic mental abilities. OTDL performance was mediated by both fluid & crystallized intelligence, which in turn were mediated by perceptual speed & memory span.
o Everyday Problems Test (EPT) (Willis & Marsiske 1993; Marsiske & Willis 1995). Paper-&-pencil test to measure older adults' cognitive competencies for managing IADL. 84 items. Each of these domains is measured with 12 items: Food Preparation, Medication Use, Telephone Use, Financial Management, Shopping, Housekeeping, Transportation Use. Subject is presented with a stimulus & is asked to solve 2 practical problems associated with that stimulus (e.g. calculating number of pills to take over a specified period of time). There are strong relationships between everyday problem solving & fluid intelligence measures (Willis & Schaie 1986; Willis & Marsiske 1991).
o Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales (PAS) (Jorm AF, Mackinnon AJ, Henderson AS et al. 1997). A standardized interview that assesses the changes seen in dementia and depression using a set of scales. There are three scales derived from an interview with the subject (cognitive impairment, depression, stroke) and three from an interview with an informant (cognitive decline, behavior change, stroke).
o Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline (IQCODE; Jorm & Korten 1988; Jorm & Jacomb 1989) is designed to detect changes in intelligence & memory in the previous 10 years. It has established validity & reliability. | Studies |
* Cognitive IADL items/measures of everyday competence form coherent scales (Johnson RJ, Wolinsky FD 1993 1994) .