U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Cognitive and Emotional Health Project: The Healthy Brain







Demographic and Social Factors

I. Socioeconomic status

  1. Measures
    1. Individual-level measures
      1. Education
      2. Income
      3. Occupation
      4. British Registrar's General Classification (Szreter 1984)
        Edwards - US Census Classification (US Census Bureau 1963; Haug 1977)
        Nam-Powers Occupational Scale Score (Nam & Powers 1983)
        Siegel's Prestige Scale (Siegel 1971)
        Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (Treiman 1977)
        Wright's Social Class Typology (Wright 1985, 1996)
        *Duncan Socioeconomic Index (Duncan 1961; Stevens & Featherman 1981; Stevens & Cho 1985)
        Hollingshead Index of Social Position (Hollingshead & Redlich 1958; Hollingshead 1975)
        Nam-Powers Socioeconomic Score (Nam & Terrie 1986)

      5. Wealth
      6. Material deprivation
      7. Townsend Deprivation Index (Townsend et al. 1988)

      8. Perceived social status
      9. MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (Adler 2000)

    2. Group measures
      1. Area based measures:
      2. US census-based measures
        Mayer-Jencks' Material Hardship measure (Mayer & Jencks 1989)
        Carstairs-Morris index (Carstairs & Morris 1991)
        Townsend index (Phillimore et al. 1994)

      3. Income inequality measures
      4. Proportion of total income earned by bottom (or top) x% of households
        Gini coefficient
        Robin Hood Index (Atkinson & Micklewright 1992)
        Atkinson Deprivation Index (Atkinson 1970)
        Theil Entropy Index (Theil 1967)

  2. Epidemiologic Evidence on the SES-health link
    1. SES as a predictor of health outcomes
    2. SES as a predictor of dementia & cognitive decline
    3. Pathways between SES & health

* Copy of measure is readily available.