U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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Cognitive and Emotional Health Project: The Healthy Brain







Demographic and Social Factors

III. Social connectedness
  1. Definitions
    1. Social networks
    2. Social integration
    3. Social support
    4. Social conflict
    5. Social capital/cohesion

  2. Measures
    1. Social networks measures
    2. Measures based on traditional network indicators

      Convoy measure (Kahn & Antonucci 1980)
      Social Network List (Hirsch 1979)

    3. Social integration measures
      1. Role-based measures.
      2. Thoits' role measure (1983, 1986)
        *Cohen's Social Network Index (1991, 1997)

      3. Social Participation Scale (House et al. 1992)
      4. Perceived integration measures
      5. Heidrich & Ryff's measure (1993a, 1993b)
        *Malmo Influence, Contact, and Anchorage Measure (Hanson et al. 1997)

      6. Complex indicators
      7. *Berkman's Social Network Index (Berkman & Syme 1979)
        *Social Network Questionnaire, New Haven EPESE (Seeman & Berkman 1988)
        Social Connections Index (Kaplan et al. 1988)
        *Rand Social Health Battery (Donald & Ware) 1982)

      8. Measures based on traditional network indicators
      9. Convoy measure (Kahn & Antonucci 1980)
        Social Network List (Hirsch 1979)

    1. Social support measures
      1. Perceived support
      2. (i) Brief unidimensional scales

        *EPESE support questions (Seeman & Berkman 1988)
        Intimacy Scale (Hobfoll & Leiberman 1987)
        Social Support Scale in OARS (Fillenbaum & Smyer 1981; Blazer 1982)
        *Malmo Social Support Scale (Hanson et al. 1997)
        LaRocco et al. (1980) scales.
        *ENRICHD Social Support Index (ENRICHD Investigators 2000)

        (ii) Broad-based scales of close & diffuse support)

        Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (Henderson et al. 1980)
        Abbreviated Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (Unden & Orth-Gomer 1987)
        *Perceived Social Support from Family & Friends (Procidano & Heller 1983)
        *Social Support Questionnaire (Sarason et al. 1983)
        Work Relationships Index (Moos & Moos 1981)
        Family Relationships Index (Moos & Moos 1981)
        *Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al. 1988)
        Self-evaluation and Social Support Schedule (O'Connor & Brown 1984)

        (iii) Multidimensional inventories

        *Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (Cohen & Hoberman 1983) *Social Support Behaviors Scale (Vaux & Harrison 1985) Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona & Russell 1987) *Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (Sherbourne & Stewart 1991) Duke Social Support Index (Landerman et al. 1989; Koenig et al. 1993)

        (iv) Network-based inventories

        Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (Barrera 1980, 1981)
        UCLA Social Support Interview (Dunkel-Schetter et al. 1987)
        Social Support Questionnaire (Shaefer, Coyne & Lazarus 1981)
        *Social Relationships Scale (McFarlane et al. 1981)
        Close Persons Questionnaire (Stansfeld & Marmot 1992)

      3. Received support
      4. Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors (Barrera et al. 1981)
        UCLA Social Support Interview (Dunkel-Schetter et al. 1987)
        *Social Support Behaviors Scale (Vaux & Harrison 1985)

    2. Social conflict measures
    3. Test of Negative Social Exchange (Ruehlman & Karoly 1991)
      Social Network Interview (Finch et al. 1989)

    4. Social capital measures
      1. Individual indicators
      2. *Interpersonal trust
        *Norms of reciprocity
        *Civic associations

      3. Composite indices
      4. *Social capital index (Putnam 2000)
        *Social cohesion scale (Sampson et al. 1997)
        *Sense of community index (MacMillan & Chavis 1986)

      5. Other measurement issues

  3. Epidemiologic research linking social connectedness and health