U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
N I H Logo
Cognitive and Emotional Health Project: The Healthy Brain







Verbal Fluency

Framingham Study (Farmer et al. 1987; Elias et al. 1997)

o 20-25 min test battery: WMS subtests (Logical memory - Immediate & Delayed recall; Visual Reproductions, Paired Associate Learning), WAIS subtests (Digits Forward, Digits Backward, Similarities) & Word Fluency (Benton) administered in 1976-78
o MMSE has been administered since 1982
o Dementia evaluations since early 1990s

Nurses' Health Study

o TICS; EBMT; Category fluency (animals); Digits backwards

Grodstein et al. (2000). Postmenopausal hormone therapy & cognitive function in healthy older women.

Rancho Bernardo Study

o 12 standard neuropsychological tests: BIMC (2 items), Buschke-Fuld Selective Reminding Test (3 measures of retrieval), category fluency test, Visual Reproduction Test (immediate & delayed recall), MMSE, Trail-Making Test Part B.

1509 community-dwelling men & women aged 55+ who participated in the original Rancho Bernardo, California Study of 1973-75 and attended clinic visits in 1984-87 and 1988-91.

Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D (1999). Gender differences in cognitive function with age: the Rancho Bernardo Study

Barrett-Connor E et al. (1999). Endogenous sex hormones & cognitive function in older men.

Barrett-Connor E, Goodman-Gruen D. (1999). Cognitive function and endogenous sex hormones in women.

Edelstein SL et al. (1998). Prospective association of smoking and alcohol use with cognitive function in an elderly cohort.

Scott RD et al. (1998). The association of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and cognitive function in an older cohort.

Normative Aging Study (Jones KJ, Albert MS et al. 1991)

o Auditory & visual continuous performance tasks (Mirsky 1978); Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; Wechsler Memory Scale (memory for paragraphs, line drawings, paired associates); tests of delayed recall & recognition; Visual Reproductions subtest of WMS; clock drawing, clock copying; Gorham's Proverb Interpretation Test; Visual-Verbal Test; competing motor programs; Block Design subtest of WAIS, Digit Symbol Substitution Subtest of WAIS; Vocabulary subtest of WAIS.

Payton M et al. (1998) Relations of bone and blood lead to cognitive function: the VA Normative Aging Study.

19. Personnes Agees QUID (PAQUID)

o MMSE, Benton Visual Retention Test, Paired-associates test of WMS, Isaacs Set Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, single item measure of subjective memory; dementia evaluation

3777 persons aged 65+ living in Gironde & Dordogne, France.

Fabrigoule C et al. (1998). Cognitive process in preclinical phase of dementia.

Dartigues JF et al. (1997) Cognitive predictors of dementia in elderly community residents.

Jacqmin-Gadda H et al. (1997). A 5-yr longitudinal study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in normal aging.

Fabrigoule C et al. (1995) Social and leisure activities and risk of dementia: A prospective longitudinal study.

Gagnon M, Dartigues JF et al. (1994) Self-reported memory complaints and memory performance in elderly French community residents: Results of the PAQUID research program. Neuroepidemiology.

Dartigues JF et al. (1992). Principal lifetime occupation and cognitive impairment in a French elderly cohort.

Dartigues JF et al. (1992). Occupation during life and memory performance in nondemented French elderly community residents.

Australian Study (Christensen H, Mackinnon AJ, Jorm AF, Henderson AS et al. 1994)

o MMSE; National Adult Reading Test; Symbol Letter Modalities Test (SLMT; a modified version of Symbol Digit Modalities Test of Smith (1973) & similar to Digit Symbol Substitution of WAIS-R); Choice & simple reaction time task requiring subjects to respond to one of two lights; Vocabulary (3 items from WAIS-R); Similarities (3 items from WAIS-R); Information (4 items identifying historical figures); Cube drawing (copy cube from drawn 2-dimensional figure); Memory for a figure (1 item from Visual Reproduction subtest of WMS); Recall of words (recall 3 words learned to criterion); Address recall (recall name & address learned to criterion 1-2 min earlier); Face recognition (intentional face recognition, similar to Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test); Word recognition (incidental memory task in which subjects are asked to answer 12 questions, each of which contained key words, & which were later recognized from 24 items); Verbal Fluency (name as many animals as possible within 30 seconds). Test battery was factor analyzed to produce 3 factors "Crystallized Intelligence", "Fluid Intelligence", "Memory". Dementia assessed with Canberra Interview for the Elderly.

Jorm AF et al. (1998). Occupation type as a predictor of cognitive decline and dementia in old age.

Jorm AF et al. (1997). Do cognitive complaints either predict future cognitive decline or reflect past cognitive decline? A longitudinal study of an elderly community sample. Cognitive complaints did not predict future cognitive change on the MMSE, an episodic memory test, or test of mental speed. Cognitive complaints at Wave 2 were unrelated to past cognitive changes on these tests after controlling for effects of anxiety/depression.

Korten AE et al. (1997). A prospective study of cognitive function in the elderly.

Christensen H et al. (1997). Education and decline in cognitive performance: compensatory but not protective.

Christensen H et al. (1996). Activity levels and cognitive functioning in an elderly community sample.

Christensen H et al. (1995). ICD-10 mild cognitive disorder: epidemiological evidence on its validity.

Christensen H et al. (1994). Age differences and interindividual variation in cognition in community-dwelling elderly.

Christensen H et al. (1994). The relationship between health and cognitive functioning in a sample of elderly people in the community.

Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

o Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT); Free and Cued Selective Reminding Tests; BIMC; "2 tests of mental status that include items assessing memory, visual construction, and attention"; semantic & phonetic word fluency tests; Trail-Making Test Parts A & B; Dementia Questionnaire.

Kawas C et al. (2000). Age-specific incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Moffat SD, Zonderman AB et al. (2000). The relationship between longitudinal declines in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations and cognitive performance in older men.

Resnick SM et al. (1998). Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on PET cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological performance.

Resnick SM et al. (1997). Estrogen replacement therapy and longitudinal decline in visual memory. A possible protective effect?

Kawas C et al. (1994). A validation study of the Dementia Questionnaire.

Whitehall II Study

o Cognitive test battery includes a "measure of verbal and numerical reasoning (fluid intelligence), a vocabulary or word recognition test, which is considered to measure crystallized intelligence; a 20-word list learning test, which is a measure of short-term verbal memory or immediate recall; 2 measures of verbal fluency.

3398 male & female British civil servants aged 41-61 years took cognitive test battery in 1991-93.

Fuhrer R, Head J, Marmot MG. (1999). Social position, age, and memory performance in the Whitehall II Study.

29. Washington Heights, Northern Manhattan (Stern Y et al.1992)

o 1-hour test battery developed for use in this study: Orientation (10 orientation items from MMSE); Verbal reasoning (Similarities subtest of WAIS-R); Nonverbal reasoning (Identities and Oddities subtest of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale); Letter fluency (Controlled Word Association Test); Category fluency (animals, foods, clothing); Repetition (repeat high-frequency phrases from Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Repetition of Phrases subtest); Auditory comprehension (first 6 items of Complex Ideational Material subtest of Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination); Word list learning and memory (Selective Reminding Test); Visuoperceptual skills (Figure matching - Benton Visual Retention Test); Nonverbal memory (multiple choice version of Benton Visual Retention Test); Visuoconstructional skills (Rosen Drawing Test); Attention (target-detection tasks).

o 2128 residents of Washington Heights in northern New York City were followed for 5 years, from 1991-1996. Dementia evaluations were also conducted. Patients who met criteria for probable or possible AD with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale score of 0.5 or higher were considered to have a clinical diagnosis of dementia.

Stricks L, Pittman J, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Stern Y. Normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery administered to English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling elders. J International Neuropsychological Society. 1998;4:311-8.

Romas SN, Mayeux R, Tang MX et al. (2000). No association between a presenilin 1 polymorphism and Alzheimer disease.

Devi G et al. (2000). Familial aggregation of Alzheimer disease among whites, African Americans, and Caribbean Hispanics in northern Manhattan.

Tang MX, Stern Y et al. (1998). The APOE-episilon4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer Disease among African Americans, White, and Hispanics.

Mayo AD Patient Registry (Petersen RC, Kokmen E et al. 1990)

o WAIS, WMS, Controlled Oral Word Association Test; Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT); Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test; Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT); Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test (BNT); Multi-Lingual Aphasia Exam Token Test; Category Fluency Test (CFT); Mattis Dementia Rating Scale; MMSE; Short Test of Mental Status; Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; Hachinski Ischemic Scale; Dementia Rating Scale; Global Deterioration Scale

Petersen RC et al. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome.

43. Aging, Brain Imaging, and Cognition (Godfrey Pearlson MH60504, #35)

Community-based sample of 334 persons aged 20-96 followed from 1999-2004

"MMSE, TICS-m, NART-R, WAIS-R, TMT (Trail Making Test?), BTA, CPT, WCST (Wisconsin Card Sort Test), CET, HVLT-R, BVMT-R, WMS-R, PMT, RDT, BNT-30 (Boston Naming Test), verbal fluency, BFRT, CFT, pegboard, comparison speed."

Kuipio, Finland Study of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the elderly (Kuusisto J et al. 1994).

o Cross-sectional population-based study of 980 Finnish elderly. Phase 1 screening battery included MMSE, Visual Reproduction Test, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Buschke Selective Reminding test (Koivisto K et al. 1992). Phase 2: Subjects scoring 1 standard deviation below the mean in phase 1 completed a detailed neuropsychological battery of 12 tests (Grober E et al. 1988). Diagnosis of dementia based on DSM-III-R criteria. Phase 3: Subjects with possible dementia underwent further studies to confirm and classify dementia subtype.

Kuuisto J et al. (1997). Association between features of the insulin resistance syndrome and Alzheimer's disease independently of apolipoprotein E4 phenotype: cross-sectional population-based study.

Bronx Aging Study (Katzman R, Aronson M, Fuld P et al. 1989)

o 488 initiallly nondemented community-dwelling persons aged 75-85 followed for 10 yr

o BIMC, WAIS subtests (Information, Vocabulary, Similarities, Digit Span, Block Design, Object Assembly, Digit Symbol), semantic category retrieval, Purdue Pegboard, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, Cued Selective Reminding Test, Raven Colored Matrices Set A, design copy task, tests of praxis, Face-Hand Test.

Masur DM et al. (1994). Neuropsychological prediction of dementia and the absence of dementia in healthy elderly persons.
Crystal HA et al. (1996). Associations of status and change measures of neurospsychological function with pathologic changes in elderly, originally nondemented subjects