Brief Mental Status TestsBy selecting | Studies | , you can view those epidemiologic studies which have used a given measure.
o Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ; Pfeiffer 1975). | Studies |
o Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein et al. 1975). Orientation, immediate & delayed recall of three words, measures of attention & calculation, several simple language items, a single visuospatial item. There are 35 individual items, of which there are two 5-item sets (5 serial subtractions of 7 starting from 100, & spelling the word 'world' backward) that can be used as alternate forms. Scores range from 0-30 points. | Studies |
o Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS) (E Teng & H Chui, 1987). A revision of the MMSE, the 3MS adds 4 tasks (date & place of birth, animal naming, similarities, & another delayed recall task) & allows for assignment of partial credit on some items, broadening range of scores from 0-100. | Studies |
o Cognitive Abilities Screening Test (CASI) (Teng et al. 1994). A composite of MMSE, 3MS & Hasegawa Dementia Scale. Designed for use in cross-cultural studies. | Studies |
o Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) (Brandt, Spencer & Folstein 1988). An adaptation of MMSE for telephone use. | Studies |
o East Boston Memory Test (EBMT) (Scherr et al. 1988; Albert et al. 1991). A brief story of 3 sentences, each sentence containing 2 ideas, is read to subject, who is then asked to recall the story. Score is number of ideas remembered (0-6). | Studies |
o Blessed Information, Memory and Concentration Test (BIMC) (Blessed et al. 1968; Davis P, Morris J, Grant E 1990) This test includes set shifting (numbers backwards from 20 and months backwards), orientation to time, and recall of a 3-line address. | Studies |
o Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) (Kiernan, Mueller, Langston, & Van Dyke 1987). An examiner first rates patient's consciousness, attention, & orientation. A graded series of questions is then asked in 5 areas: language (fluency, comprehension, repetition, naming); constructional ability; memory (recall of 4 words at 10 minutes with category prompts, followed by multiple choices); calculation; verbal reasoning (similarities, comprehension). Each section begins with a difficult item; if subject gets item correct, no other questions in the section are given. Administration time: 5 min for normal subjects, 10-20 min for impaired subjects. Shows promise as screener for older subjects; independent data on validity & reliability are lacking, however.
o 7 Minute Screen (Solomon PR et al. 1998). This test includes 4 brief tests: Enhanced Cued Recall, Temporal Orientation, Verbal Fluency, Clock Drawing.
o Geriatric Mental State Examination (Copeland et al.1976, 1987). This is a standardized interview that includes an assessment of functional ability as well as cognition. | Studies |